Korbanot

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By: Rabbi Ari Enkin

The korbanot are a vital component of the Shacharit service[1] and it is only the korbanot that the Shulchan Aruch twice instructs us to recite.[2] As such, there is no room to suggest that the recitation of korbanot is merely a custom or a meritorious practice. At the very least, one should recite the ‘Tamid’.[3]

One who properly recites korbanot is regarded as one who had actually offered them in the Beit Hamikdash and all of one’s sins are forgiven.[4] Furthermore, it is taught that one who recites the entire korbanot section, including the accompanying mishnayot, assists in destroying the powers of impurity in the world.[5] The recitation of the Ketoret, the incense component of the korbanot, is reputed to serve as a segula for many blessings.[6] 

It is especially important to recite the korbanot each day as the actual liturgy makes no mention of them. As such, perhaps one can forgo the recitation of the Mussaf korbanot as unlike Shacharit or Mincha, the Mussaf prayer includes the corresponding scriptural verses.[7] Indeed, there exists a custom based on Kabbala to never recite the Mussaf korbanot passages.[8] According to some sources, one who does not recite the korbanot has not created the necessary spiritual pipeline required for one’s prayers to effectively ascend to God.[9] One who was unable to recite the korbanot before praying may do so afterwards.[10] 

The korbanot of Shacharit should not be recited while it is still night, as in the Beit Hamikdash the korbanot could not have been brought before the crack of dawn.[11] However, if one did recite it before dawn, it need not be repeated.[12] It is preferable that one recite the korbanot while standing, similar to the korbanot of the Beit Hamikdash which had to be offered while standing.[13] Some authorities recommend that only Kohanim need stand when reciting the korbanot, but that all others need not be particular about this.[14] There is also a view that the korbanot of Shacharit should be recited standing while those of Mincha can be recited while sitting.[15] Some say that the korbanot should always be recited while sitting as it is essentailly more of a Torah study than a prayer.[16] 

It is preferable for one to recite the korbanot in the synagogue along with everyone else which symbolizes and recalls the communal nature of the korbanot in the Beit Hamikdash.[17] Common custom is to be wearing one’s Tallit and Tefillin when reciting the korbanot, though some have the custom to only put them on immediately prior to Pesukei d’Zimra.[18] Women are not required to recite the korbanot, though there are some authorities who encourage them to do so.[19] 

It is a matter of debate whether or not sacrifices will return in the Messianic era.[20] It seems that the halachic literature supports the notion that korbanot will once again return[21] while the Midrashic texts seem to suggest that there will be no animal sacrifices in the future.[22] Rav Kook was famous for his opinion that only grain sacrifices will be offered in the future.[23]  Although the future of korbanot is uncertain, what is certain however is that a life of prayer and good deeds[24] have the ability to accomplish everything that that korbanot were able to and much more.[25]


[1] O.C. 48:1

[2] O.C. 1:7-9

[3] Shulchan Aruch Harav O.C. 48:1

[4] Ta’anit 27b, Menachot 110a, Aruch Hashulchan 48:1

[5] Piskei Teshuvot 1:note 4

[6] The recitation of Ketoret, especially when recited from a parchment written in Torah script is cited by a number of sources as a segula for: eliminating sickness, saving the nation from foreign aggression., blessing in one’s work, saving one from Hell, warding off Evil Spirits, inheriting the World-to-Come, granting one favor in the eyes of others, and becoming wealthy.

[7] Piskei Teshuvot 48:note 1, Kaf Hachaim 48:6

[8] Kaf Hachaim 48:6

[9] Piskei Teshuvot 48:1

[10] Shraga Hameir 7:132

[11] O.C. 1:6, Mishna Berura 1:17, Aruch Hashulchan 1:25, 48:1

[12] Piskei Teshuvot 48:note 32

[13] Magen Avraham 48:1, Kaf Hachaim 48:2

[14] Aruch Hashulchan 1:26

[15] Siddur Ya’avetz

[16] Kaf Hachaim 48:2, Sha’arei Teshuva 48:1, Aruch Hashulchan 1:26

[17] Rema O.C. 48:1, Be’er Heitev 48:1

[18] Sefer Haminhagim Chabad

[19] Beit Yosef 47

[20] It is interesting to note that according to the Rambam, sacrifices were only implemented in order to imitate the foreign style of worship that the Jews had become accustomed to while in Egypt. Therefore, God arranged it, so to speak, that the Jewish people would be able to serve Him in a familiar manner. As such, considering that animal sacrifices are no longer a feature of daily religious worship in most of the world, it is conceivable to suggest that God will do away with korbanot in the Messianic Era. (Rambam, Moreh Nevuchim 3:46). Other authorities vehemently disagree with this hypothesis however. (Ramban, Vayikra 1:9)

[21] Rambam Melachim 11:1

[22] Vayikra Rabba 9:7, Tanchuma Emor 19

[23] See however: http://www.geocities.com/m_yericho/ravkook/VAYIKRA58.htm for more on Rabbi Kook’s approach to korbanot in the future

[24] Avot D’rabbi Natan 4:5, Sukka 49a

[25] Menachot 110a

About Ari Enkin

Rabbi Ari N. Enkin, a resident of Ramat Beit Shemesh, is a researcher and writer of contemporary halachic issues. He is the author of the “Dalet Amot of Halacha” series (8 volumes), Rabbinic Director of United with Israel and a RA"M at a number of yeshivot. www.rabbienkin.com

64 comments

  1. In a shiur, R. Herschel Schachter said that the writing down Pitum HaKetoret on a klaf is a violation of writing down Torah sheb’al peh.

  2. The link in note 23 doesn’t work

  3. Minhag Yisrael is to omit korbanot if the minyan is short on time.

  4. Hadardai-

    Sounds a bit odd. So much other Torah Shebal Peh has been written down. Some say once the Talmud was written down the ban no longer applies on anything.

    My guess is that there was something deeper or more detailed to Rav Schacter’s ruling.

    Ari Enkin

  5. Anonymous-

    I know of kulas and heteirim for indivudals to skip korbanot but I am unfamiliar of anything that allows a minyan to patently and permanently skip korbanot becuase they are “short on time”.

    Once in while, maybe. But not to institutionalize the practice.

    Ari Enkin

  6. Note that the Ramban does not present that view of the Rambam in disagreeing with him; he presents and entirely different argument, namely, that we are slaughtering that which the nations worship as gods, and disagrees with *that*.

    The British nusach has *only* the Tamid (with the extra pasuk at the end), Shabbat, and Rosh Chodesh sections and all mishnayot of Aizehu Mikoman. (It omits the Akeda but has everything from “Le-olam” to “Amar Hashem”, but those aren’t korbanot.) Makes it a lot easier to say…

  7. And like everything before Mizmor Shir or Rabbi Yishmael, minyanim in Israel skip it all (or, to be precise, leave it up to the individual to say).

  8. Lawrence Kaplan

    The Ramban is refering to 3:46 speaking about the details of the sacrficial rites, e.g. which animals are to be offered, while R. Enkin ought to have referred to the Rambam’s basic theory regarding the institution of the sacrificial rites in general in 3:32.

    The Rambam NEVER says nor implies that there will be no korbanot in messianic times.

    There are two separate issues here which are often confused. 1)The reason according to the Rambam for korbanot in general discussed in 3:32. This is a ruse devised to wean people away from idolatry, while allowing to retain modes of worship with which they were familiar. 2) The reason for certain details of the sacrificial rites, discussed in 3:46. These are directly aimed against idolatrous practices. Much more, of course, remains to be said.

  9. Prof. Kaplan-

    Thanks for that!

    Indeed, the Rambam holds that there will be korbanot in messianic times, as I note in the next footnote.

    I would like to believe however, that based on the Moreh there are grounds to suggest that God just might not re-instate animal sacrifices in messianic times.

    Ari Enkin

  10. Lawrence Kaplan,

    Thank you for addressing the points I had hoped to raise.

    R’ Enkin,

    An additional problem with קטורת on klaf is the principle that אין כותבין את התורה פרשיות פרשיות. The Ketoret includes several pesuqim from the Torah, and writing them on klaf in this way is problematic.

  11. R’ Enkin,

    You wrote:

    “I would like to believe however, that based on the Moreh there are grounds to suggest that God just might not re-instate animal sacrifices in messianic times.”

    This strikes me as a bizarre statement. You would want to summarily throw out all of those mitzvot and thousands of halakhot because of your subjective feelings about the institution of korbanot? You would want a significant portion of our Torah and mitzvot to be nullified to satisfy contemporary sensibilities? This doesn’t seem like a proper attitude to תורת השם.

  12. RJM-

    I want what God wants and whatever He will decree.

    However, I have a theory/belief/thesis that God just might not reinstate korbanot, in full, as were done in the past, based on contemporary realities.

    Dont worry, if I am completely off my rocker and He does decide otherwise, I’m in. And yes, I do always recite Mussaf, and with kavana.

    Ari Enkin

  13. It is a matter of debate whether or not sacrifices will return in the Messianic era.

    I am not aware of any major authority who disputes the return of sacrifices in the Messianic era.

    On Rav Kook, see this letter of his published in Malki Ba-Kodesh vol. 4: ובענין הקרבנות גם כן יותר נכון להאמין שהכל ישוב על מכונו
    http://www.hebrewbooks.org/pdfpager.aspx?req=1544&st=&pgnum=199

  14. According the the Rambam’s admittedly idiosyncratic notion of “Rav Ashina veRavina sof hora’ah”, Qorbanos can’t be a critical part of davening, or even iqar hadin at all.

    In Chazal’s day, Pesuqei deZimra were something the pious did, not enshrined in the siddur. Qorbanos doubly so. Yes, if you felt a need to get kaparah, you would say the appropriate qorban. But as a daily service?

    That awaited the composition of the siddur in the days of the geonim.

    Which, being after R’ Ashi and Ravina, could not be anything the Rambam could consider iqar hadin. Minhag Yisrael kedin, yes.

    And one of the interesting things about the SA is that the mechaber doesn’t consistently distinguish between such things. Eg: does anyone think it is an actual violation of a derabbanan if they tied their right shoe (or for some of us: left shoe) first?

  15. R. ENKIN:

    “I would like to believe however, that based on the Moreh there are grounds to suggest that God just might not re-instate animal sacrifices in messianic times.”

    iirc the rambam states in the moreh that if the torah were to be given today there would be no korbanot (or no need for korbanot). is this what you are inferring from? because he does not say here that god will not (or might not) reinstate the sacrificial cult in messianic times.

  16. Abba-

    I am not familiar with this but ‘baruch shekivanti’ as they say.

    Send me sources if you can. And quick! I’m getting creamed here in the comments!

    Ari Enkin

  17. According to Mishneh Berurah in Bi’ur Halachah, Kaf Hahayyim, Magen Avraham, Taz, end of Orah Hayim 47, women say Korbanot just as men do.

  18. But the Rambam has a whole book of the Mishneh Torah about the sacrifices, and he tells you the book only includes those mitzvos that are eternal.

    See my piece in the Vayiqra issue of Mesukim miDevash. The Narvonni on the Guide (ad loc) explains the Rambam’s position as follows (but see the full article): The element of human nature that Hashem did not ask us to uproot suddenly is not caused by being acclimated to idolatry. It is an innate human need that
    therefore consistently found expression in idolatry. Not that the Rambam was saying that korbanos were given as a way to slowly wean Bnei Yisrael from such practices, but that qorbanos are a positive expression of a human need that would otherwise erupt negatively in idolatry.

  19. R’ Enkin — how can one say that a minyan cannot skip korbanot when some minyanim start the morning prayers at mizmor shir/baruch she’amar or even yishtabach?

    though I have always assumed that people who attend such a minyan say the korbanot beforehand (as I do).

  20. Carlos-

    Correct. Those minyans expect you to have recited korbanos (and birchos hashar, of course) already.

    Ari Enkin

  21. “I am not aware of any major authority who disputes the return of sacrifices in the Messianic era.”

    On the other hand, the question/discussion has been ongoing, in some form, throughout recorded Rabbinic literature. That too tells us something.

  22. “An additional problem with קטורת on klaf is the principle that אין כותבין את התורה פרשיות פרשיות. The Ketoret includes several pesuqim from the Torah, and writing them on klaf in this way is problematic.”

    That seems compelling on the surface, except that before printing everything had to be written, and vellum (klaf) was a fairly common writing surface. Actually, before approximately 1000 years ago paper wasn’t even an option. And when writing on vellum, you usually have to score it, and indeed most manuscripts are scored. And one can hardly claim that using ktav ashuri was avoided or that scattered pesukim are not written out (although Rambam does posit this as a reason to explain the existence of the semi-cursive). It’s hard to see how these are different from a loose leaf of klaf.

  23. Stretching the topic a bit, together with the Korbanot there would presumably also be all the ancillary issues of Tumah/Tahara that were central issues for some of the pre-churban-sheni sectarians; and, I believe, continue to be practiced by modern-day Karaites.

  24. It is not a matter of debate whether or not Korbanos will return. The Moreh Nevuchim does not imply that in any way. You will cancel many mitzvos if you base its existence on how well you think it fits with the Moreh’s reasons nowadays. According to the Rambam, one who says the Torah will change is a heretic. The Rambam went beyond all other codes in specifically writing halachos for when the Beis haMikdash is rebuilt, so how can you imply in FN#20 that he holds they will end? Every prayer contains multiple requests for the return of korbanos, so what is their meaning if one thinks it will never happen?

    I do not think that is the general impression one gets from “the” midrashic texts, but perhaps from one midrash. However, there are many ways to explain it. It also says there will be no tefillah besides Todah, but it seems unlikely that Shevach will be abolished. So it may just be emphasizing that Todah will be primary above other things. The midrash may also referring to an era after the messianic age, such as techiyas haMesim or beyond. Everything will be entirely different then, so mitzvos may also. E.g. the Rambam holds physical existence will eventually cease, so then there won’t be able to be korbanos.

  25. (cont from 10:43) Thinking out loud: while the Korbanot are “of the essence” in liturgy, these related issues are not pronounced (beyond the very beginning of Shacharit Seder ha’Korbanot).

  26. To add: There are statements about how all chagim but Purim and all Nach (or Tanach?!) but Esther will be abolished. Certainly that can’t be literal.

    Of course, *Taanit Esther* would remain even if the four fasts were abolished.

  27. Only Korbanot by Shacharit is mentioned. What are the laws and customs concerning saying Korbanot by Mincha?

  28. To add: According to the Haftorah we read on the 1st Day of Succot, the only chag that will be observed by the notar m’kol ha’goyim will be Succot (Zechariah 14:16). Admittedly, as our eschatology developed. a distinction can be made between this period and Yimot ha’Mashiach.

  29. As far as writing down pitum haketoret is concerned I would assume that the issue here is that it is being written with dyo on klaf like STAM. This clearly blurs the line bnetween Toshba and Torah shebichtav in way that printing or simply writing Toshba down does not.

  30. “As far as writing down pitum haketoret is concerned I would assume that the issue here is that it is being written with dyo on klaf like STAM. This clearly blurs the line bnetween Toshba and Torah shebichtav in way that printing or simply writing Toshba down does not.

    That’s what I was referring to before. Before printing, and certainly before paper, virtually all writing *was* written with diyo on klaf, with sirtut. No, it didn’t have the same appearance as sifrei Torah necessarily, but at least be-dieved most of that sort of writing would be completely kosher for sifrei kodesh.

  31. It seems inappropriate to assert that korbanot must be said congregationally during tefilat shacharit and, possibly, mincha. The nusach Ashkenaz minyanim that I have attended skip korbonot. The shaliach tzibbur goes from “hamikadesh et shimcha” right to “Rabi Yishmael omer”. Nor have I ever been to an Ashkenaz minyan where korbonot were said for mincha. Surely they have an halachic basis for their practice.

    As others have noted, there is little halachic basis for concluding that korbonot will be eliminated in the bet hamikdash of the future. Certainly the korban tamid will be continued since that is referred to in the torah as ‘chukat olam’. One may conjecture that voluntary animal sacrafices will be discouraged, and that the option of a korban mincha to fulfill obligations will be encouraged.

    Finally, I must object again to R’ Enkin’s predilection for combining his understanding of halacha with side issues such as segulot. I suspect that few of us pay any attention to segulot, and many consider them to be of some motivational value only, or else – mere superstition.

  32. Lawrence Kaplan

    The Rambam explicitly states in Hilkhot Melakhim Chapter 11 that in the mesinic era the temple will be rebuilt and all the korbanot will be reinstituted.

    The fact that he states in Guide 3:32 that the instituting of korbanot as a mode of avodat ha-Sham was historically conditioned, and that if, say, the Torah had been given in another time the the korbanot would NOT have been commanded, does not mean that once they have been commanded, for whatever reason, they are not eternally binding.

    The one place where there may be a hint that the korbanot may not eternally binding is in the Guide 3:34. There the Rambam states “matters that are PRIMARILY intended in the Law ought not to be dependent on time and place, but … ought to be absolute and universal.” But since korbanot, as stated in Guide 3:32, are not in accordance with God’s primary intention, but with his secondary intention, the implication seems to be that korbanot may be dependent on time and place and are not absolute and universal. Or perhaps the Rambam is just refering to the fact that korbanot, unlike prayer, are limited to one place, the Temple.

    The midrash that all the festivals except for Purim and Yom Kippur will be abolished in messianic times is from the late non-authoritative Midrash Mishle, and is, obviously, never cited by the Rambam.

  33. Ye’yasher kochakhem R. Enkin and respondents.

    See also Shu”t Avnei Nezer (CM 3, final paragraph) who suggests that perhaps the reason the gemara in Yoma 5b reports that Aaron will have to be re-inaugurated as a kohen after his resurrection when the third Temple arrives is based on an insight of R. Shneur Zalman of Liadi. R. Liadi posits that the sacrificial service of the future will have as its purpose the elevation and the rectification of the animal kingdom, as opposed to the sacrificial service of the pre-messianic era whose purpose has been to elevate human society. As an alternate possibility, Avnei Nezer quotes the Ramban (end of comments on the third principle in Maimonides’ Sefer Hamitzvot), that Aaron will require re-inauguration because his death in will have abrogated his inauguration that was originally accomplished in Leviticus ch. 8.

    http://www.hebrewbooks.org/pdfpager.aspx?req=1347&st=&pgnum=14

    Thus, one might hypothesize that the Rambam and Ramban camps are consistent with their positions: Both camps agree there will be sacrifices in the messianic era (since the laws of the Torah are eternal), but some (Rambam/Ba’al Hatanya) envisage messianic era sacrifices as having a new philosophical purpose, whereas others (Ramban) see it as having the same philosophical purpose since time immemorial.

  34. Lawrence Kaplan

    R. Spira : Thank you for you reference to the most interesting comment of the Avnei Nezer and for you hypothesis.

    You are, however, confusing two issues. 1) The reason why God instituted sacrifices in the first place as a mode of service of God. Here the Rambam points to the historical circumstances at the time the Torah was given. 2) The function of sacrifices once they were leglislated. Here he notes that once they are commanded they serve as a mode of avodat Shem and thereby contribute to the “effacing of the traces of idolatry and establishing the fundamental principle of My unity.” There is no reason to assume that this will change in the messianic era.

    There is an interesting issue as to whether idolatry, in Maimonides’ view, has been totlly abolished. Josef Stern argues that for Maimonides more subtle forms of idolatry continue to perist.

  35. Only Korbanot by Shacharit is mentioned. What are the laws and customs concerning saying Korbanot by Mincha?

    Nusach Sefarad (and I believe also the Sephardim) do say korbanos before Minchah. If one says them in the morning, hard to understand why the should not also be said by mincha, especially the parshas ha tamid.

  36. Re korbanot in the messianic era:

    “In [that era] all offerings will cease except the thanksgiving offering which will never come to an end.” (Pesikta 79a)

  37. Zmanei Tefila were made to coincide with the sacrifices. Individuals and those acting as the maamados said tefilla but the actual korbanos were clearly brought only be the kohanim on behalf of the community. Unshalmah parim sefaseinu seems to relate to more so to the shliach tzibbur more so than individuals since individuals have obligation to pray independent of the korbanos. It would seem that the appropriate parallel would be to have only the shliach tzibbur recite the Tamid
    Never understood why an individual should recite korban Tamid which is a korban tzibur.

  38. Rav Kook wrote in Igrot HaRe’iyah that it is more correct to believe that the seder avodah with korbanot will be re-instated.

    Rav Kook did write that there will be a future time when korbanot from animals will not be offered – but that seems to refer to a distant time in which animals will be on a higher level than they are now…

    The correct link is http://ravkooktorah.org/VAYIKRA58.htm

  39. S.: If they were codices rather than scrolls, they would be pasul. When are the earliest codices? Not long after chatimat hatalmud. Perhaps tsbp was never written in scrolls? (Ditto, nekudot.)

    “If one says them in the morning, hard to understand why the should not also be said by mincha, especially the parshas ha tamid.”

    On the last days of Pesach we omit the beginning of the parsha- at mincha you should thus just say the last couple of pesukim, then.

  40. “S.: If they were codices rather than scrolls, they would be pasul.

    What about a loose leaf? Isn’t that what the pitum haketoret is?

  41. Nachum: “Perhaps tsbp was never written in scrolls?”

    Unlikely.

    http://tzvee.blogspot.com/2009/12/was-talmud-hullin-scroll-oldest-talmud.html

  42. MiMedinat HaYam

    sfardim dont say the korban in musaf on chagim (but they do on shabat and rosh chodesh). i assume the reason is as you state above, but …

    2. minchas eluzur also says to say korbanot standing. i have a toldos aharon siddur that says to say shir shel yom standing, too; i assume for same reason of avoda is standing.

    3. a yeshivish / litvish minyan once told me yeshivish / litvish dont say korbanot because of bitul torah. (of course, if so, then …) didnt we say the same thing about a year ago in r gil’s post on “hoiche shmonah esrei”?

    4. also, some say ketoret three times a day because of realistic theory related to kabalah that i forgot. (with or without a klaf.)

  43. S.: You are right. Also no nekudot in the Petum HaKetoret klaf.

    Shimon: Wow, thanks for that! I stand corrected.

    I always wondered why, if you add Shabbat and Rosh Chodesh, you don’t add chagim as well.

  44. Sorry to jump in late. Just wanted to point out that however obligatory the korbanot are (or not), if a person says them in a rushed fashion or without meaning, then it is far better that he not say them at all. The exception we make for the Amidah, i.e. that a person should recite it even when kavvanah is impossible despite Hazal’s clear prohibition, does not apply to anything else.

    Since very few synagogues allow for reciting even the Shema and its blessings at the rate of normal human conversation (and for very good reason because people are pressured in the morning to get to work or start their day), a fortiori that korbanot are rendered moot for a great many people and communities.

  45. RE: Ketoret From a Klaf

    כתב רבי חיים פלאג’י בספר כף החיים (סימן י”ז אות י”ח): “יכתוב פרשת הקטורת על קלף או גויל בכתב אשורית כספר תורה ויקרא בו ויעשה לו סגולה, דהקטורת מעשיר ומובטח לו דלא יופסק פרנסתו ותמיד יהיה לו פרנסה טובה וכלכלה ברוווח ולא בצמצום.”

    Ari Enkin

  46. According to Rambam, in what sense will it be God that does or does not reinstitute karbanot as opposed to the sanhedrin?

    If so, then they will surely be able to take all considerations into account.

    Below is a recent take on it by R. NL Cardozo

    http://cardozoschool.org/show_article.asp?article_id=703&cat_id=4&cat_name=Parsha%2FTanach&parent_id=4&subcat_id=34&subcat_name=Vayikra

  47. I thank Mori ve-Rebbi R. Kaplan for his kind words and for his illuminating rejoinder.

    Regarding the independent question of reading the ketoret from a scroll, it is of interest to note that the gemara in Yoma 38a features an episode regarding a descendant of the House of Avtinas who was holding a “megillat samemanim” (Rashi: on it were written the names of the ingredients of the incense).

  48. Rav Spira-

    Thanks for that amazing source in support of the ketoret-from-a-klaf minhag. (Not that Rav Palagi needs any additional support (not even from rishonim) for his rulings and advice)

    Ari

  49. What’s the source for a 3rd and final Temple with or without sacrifices?
    Chazal had at least 3 opportunities to rebuild the Temple but refused, probably because prayer was much more effective and civilised than sacrifices.

  50. It’s a little known fact that at the time he gave them, Yechezkel’s nevuot were about the *second* bayit.

    When did they have three opportunities? They had one in the 300’s, took it, and were stopped.

  51. Believe it or not Hadrian did. And Julian. There was a 3rd, I think it was Trajan but don’t have a chance to look it up.
    Yes, Ezekiel was talking about a 2nd Temple.
    So where did the theology of the 3rd and final temple come from?

  52. Thank you, R. Enkin, for the generous recognition.

    Thank you, as well, to R’ mb for the excellent question. The source for the theology of the third Temple is the Oral Torah. As the gemara in Sukkah 41a posits – “speedily the Temple will be built…” And as Rashi there comments (second to last line) “the future Temple which we anticipate being built and sophisticated will be revealed and come from Heaven.”

  53. Lawrence Kaplan

    R. Spira: As I am sure I need not tell you, according to Maimonides in Hilkhot Melakhim 11:1, it is the King Messiah who will build the third Temple.

  54. mb: “Believe it or not Hadrian did”

    I believe this should be a matter of reliable sources, not beliefs…

  55. Just wanted to point out that however obligatory the korbanot are (or not), if a person says them in a rushed fashion or without meaning, then it is far better that he not say them at all.

    That is the correct approach towards vidui and perhaps shemoneh esreh, but korbanot too? Korbanot are a recitation of verses, not a prayer. Is kavanah so important for them?

  56. I thank Mori ve-Rebbi R. Kaplan for his response. Indeed, to reinforce his point, even Rashi in one place agrees with Rambam; viz. Rashi to Ezekiel 43:11. R. J. David Bleich endeavors to resolve this apparent contradiction in Benetivot ha-Halakhah I, pp. 270-277.

  57. ” Shimon S on November 10, 2011 at 9:12 am

    mb: “Believe it or not Hadrian did”

    I believe this should be a matter of reliable sources, not beliefs…”

    Very funny… I believe etc.
    Anyway, it’s a figure of speech, old chap,extended because Hadrian, known for his brutal persecutions is an unlikely source for offering the Jews a chance to rebuild the Temple. But when he came to power in 117, Trajan had just brutally put down the Jewish rebellion of 115, and he wanted to curry favour with the Jewish leadership. Source? Not Artscroll or Rabbi Wein.But history books.

  58. Kavana is important everywhere. However, it is KETORES that the Rema says thatit is better not to say it then to say it without kavana — not korbanot.

    Ari Enkin

  59. mb,

    now that we know who does NOT write that, I’m sure you know what’s next…

  60. ” Shimon S on November 10, 2011 at 2:06 pm

    mb,

    now that we know who does NOT write that, I’m sure you know what’s next…”
    Around 120 or so was known as the Golden Age of the Roman Empire. Hadrian had been in power a very short time. He was a very happy camper and owed is success to the gods. He spent a lot of time building temples throughout the Empire and worshipping at them.
    To him, the Jew’s God, was just another god to thank and worship and he instructed or asked the Jews to rebuild their temple accordingly.
    They refused.
    Try Gibbon, or perhaps Peter Gay.

  61. mb,

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Citation

    Anyway, not to shlep this, other than Chazal, these are the ancient sources describing the events of the Bar Kochba rebellion:

    -Casius Dio, Historia Romana, LXIX 12, 1-2
    http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/E/Roman/Texts/Cassius_Dio/69*.html

    -Eusebius, Historia Ecclesiastica IV, 6
    http://www.ccel.org/ccel/schaff/npnf201.iii.ix.vi.html

    In some others it is mentioned in passing:

    -Appian, Syrian War, § 50
    http://www.livius.org/ap-ark/appian/appian_syriaca_10.html#%5B%A750%5D

    -Aelius Spartianus: The Life of Hadrian, XIV
    http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/ancient/aelius-hadrian.asp

    The only source connecting Hadrian with rebuilding the Temple of God is a Rabbinic one: Gen. R. 64, 10
    http://www.daat.ac.il/daat/tanach/raba1/64.htm

    So what sources can you possibly quote to support your previous statement:

    “Chazal had at least 3 opportunities to rebuild the Temple but refused, probably because prayer was much more effective and civilised than sacrifices.” ?

  62. “Kavana is important everywhere. However, it is KETORES that the Rema says that it is better not to say it then to say it without kavana — not korbanot.”

    Any and all recitation, when it is rushed or meaningless, is by definition zilzul, and is therefore better not to be said at all. (For an strong statement to this effect, see Teshuvot ha-Rambam, Blau #261, Shilat p. 589.)

  63. This entire article exemplifies outstanding excellence.

    THANK YOU HASHEM for this article!!!!

    And also thank Rabbi Ari Enkin 🙂

  64. I once listened to a lecture by a gair named John David Scalamonti, author of Ordained to Be a Jew (his autobiography). He was a Catholic priest before converting to Orthodox Judaism.

    At the end of his lecture, he gave one piece of advice:
    “Recite korbanot, because if you do not, then YOU become the korban.”

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