Halakhic Positions of Rav Joseph B. Soloveitchik
by R. Aharon Ziegler
The general rule is that if one inadvertently neglected to daven, he may remedy his error by adding a second Shemoneh Esrei in the following tefillah. For example, one who missed Shacharit would daven twice at Mincha, if he missed a Mincha he would daven twice at Ma’ariv. Mussaf is the exception to the rule, and one who misses it has no recourse.
Rav Soloveitchik explained the reason being, based on Tosafot in Berachot [26a], this is because of the general principle that korbanot may not be offered outside of their allotted time [avar zemano bateil korbano] . While this is true as well regarding the korban Shachar, which corresponds to our Tefillat Shacharit, and the korban Bein HaArbayim, which is the basis of our Tefillat Mincha, so no tashlumim should be available, but since there are other important themes in those tefillot, [Berachot 26b] a tashlumim is possible. Even if the aspect of u’neshalma parim sefateinu is lost, nevertheless, a tashlumim is worthwhile because of the other themes. Only of Mussaf, where u’neshalma parim sefateinu is the primary motivation for the tefillah, would we say that having forfeited that element of the tefillah, there is no longer any purpose to daven at all.