The changing status of women in general society raises many questions for conservative religious groups, regarding both external and internal dynamics. R. Yosef Kafach, the great Yemenite scholar, was asked how an Orthodox Jew should relate to the ruling of a female secular judge in Israel. He responded as follows (Kesavim, vol. 1 p. 108):
To the question how to relate to the ruling of a female judge, I don’t see room for such a question. Does the defendant have a choice whether to relate or not? Additionally, the halakhah is that when the litigants accept a female she may serve as a judge. However, we can discuss the nature of this acceptance, but this is not the place. It is true that King Shlomo appointed female judges. However, we do not know for what and for whom they judged. It says in Koheles Rabbah (2:10): “Coaches and chariots (shidah ve-shidos) — male judges and female judges.” As we said, we do not know for what and for whom.