By: Rabbi Ari Enkin
Mimouna is the post-Pesach celebration of friendship, brotherhood, and unity that is observed in Moroccan Jewish communities. It is a twenty-four hour celebration which begins immediately with the conclusion of Pesach. It is viewed by many as the formal return to chametz after such foods were forbidden over the course of Pesach. The theme of Mimouna is luck, fertility, wealth, and prosperity. To this effect, gold and jewelry often decorates the Mimouna table, and sometimes even the food, as well. The number five is also a theme of the holiday.
While the primary traditional food of Mimouna is certainly the moufletta, a type of pancake closely resembling the mallawach, there are others as well. Fruits, especially oranges, apples, almonds, and nuts are eaten. Zaben, white almost nougat, marozia, fried raisons with nuts, and mazun, fruit jam also feature prominently. Plates of flour decorate the Mimouna table which is often topped with gold coins, oil, or beans. Live fish are also often found at Mimouna celebrations due to their association with protection and fertility.
There are a number of theories as to the origins of the name “Mimouna” with an emphasis on a continuation of the Pesach themes. First, there are those who suggest that the Mimouna celebrations commemorate and are named in honor of the Rambam’s father, Rabbi Maimon ben Yosef, who is believed to have been born and/or died on this day. Maimon was an important figure in Moroccan Jewish life, having written and worked extensively on Muslim-Jewish relations. Indeed, largely due to his influence, Muslims often joined the Mimouna celebrations of their Jewish neighbors, even supplying the flour used to make the mouflettot, as many Jews did not keep flour in their homes over Pesach and therefore had none in their possession at the conclusion of the holiday.
Others say that the name Mimouna derives from the Arabic word for “wealth” and “good luck” or from the Hebrew word “emuna” or “ma’amin” both of which mean “faith” or “belief”, which reflect Mimouna as a celebration of faith and trust in God. This is closely related to Passover in general, and the crossing of the Red-Sea in particular, which took place on the last (7th) day of Pesach. It was at the crossing of the Red-Sea that the entire nation witnessed the power of God which was an experience that strengthened their emuna.
The Midrash also teaches that following the drowning of the Egyptian pursuers, their gold and jewelry washed up to the shore and was made available for the taking, thereby enriching the Jews, hence the theme of wealth. So too, just as the Exodus from Egypt was the fulfillment of a promised redemption, Mimouna also symbolizes the hope for the future redemption with the coming of Mashiach a cornerstone of our “emuna“. The word Mimouna may also be related to the “manna” which was the food which God provided the Jewish people following the Exodus from Egypt and the subsequent wandering in the desert.
In the Morocco of yesteryear, Mimouna had a prominent place in the synagogue, which is no longer the case in most communities today. On the afternoon of the last day of Pesach, the congregation would take to the fields to recite the Birkat Ilanot. Following their return to the synagogue and the conclusion of Pesach, a number of readings were conducted from the Scriptures, especially from the book of Proverbs as well as the Mishna, which formally inaugurated the Mimouna celebrations. In Israel, Mimouna is a national holiday observed with barbeques in the parks and family visits. It is interesting to note that Mimouna is a relatively new holiday having only emerged in the middle of the 18th century.
This certified Ashkenazi writer who never before researched Mimouna welcomes comments, feedback (inaccuracies?), and other customs relating to Mimouna.